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Vulnerable Definition – PACE Code C 2018

vulnerable person

PACE Code C 2018

Vulnerable persons definition

Introducing a new definition of vulnerable – Code C 2018 1.13(c)

‘Vulnerable’ applies to any person who, because of a mental health condition or mental disorder

(i) may have difficulty understanding or communicating effectively about the full implications for them of any procedures and processes connected with:

  • their arrest and detention; or (as the case may be)
  • their voluntary attendance at a police station or their presence elsewhere,

for the purpose of a voluntary interview; and

  • the exercise of their rights and entitlements.

(ii) does not appear to understand the significance of what they are told, of questions they are asked or of their replies;

(iii) appears to be particularly prone to:

  • becoming confused and unclear about their position;
  • providing unreliable, misleading or incriminating information without

knowing or wishing to do so;

  • accepting or acting on suggestions from others without consciously

knowing or wishing to do so; or

  • readily agreeing to suggestions or proposals without any protest or question.

A person may be vulnerable as a result of a having a mental health condition or mental disorder. Similarly, simply because an individual does not have, or is not known to have, any such condition or disorder, does not mean that they are not vulnerable for the purposes of this Code. It is therefore important that the custody officer in the case of a detained person or the officer investigating the offence in the case of a person who has not been arrested or detained, as appropriate, considers on a case by case basis, whether any of the factors described above might apply to the person in question. In doing so, the officer must take into account the particular circumstances of the individual and how the nature of the investigation might affect them and bear in mind that juveniles, by virtue of their age will always require an appropriate adult.

The Mental Health Act 1983 Code of Practice at page 26 describes the range of clinically recognised conditions which can fall within the meaning of mental disorder.

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Transferring to a mobile device using iTunes

If you have downloaded our audio files to your computer and want to sync them to a device via iTunes, here are some tips to help you out:

To add the audio files to your iPod, iPhone, or iPad, you need to first import it into iTunes.

If you have our audio files on your computer, you can import them into iTunes so they appear in your iTunes library.

Do either of the following:

  • Drag a file or folder from the desktop to the iTunes window.If you add a folder, all the files it contains are added to your library.
  • In iTunes, choose File > Add to Library or Add Folder to Library, locate a file or folder, then click Open.

By default, adding items to your iTunes library creates a reference to the file’s current location; the original file remains in the current location unless you select “Copy files to the iTunes Media folder when adding to library.”

Next, sync your device to your laptop using the following instructions:

  1. Open iTunes. Make sure that you have the latest version.
  2. Connect your device to your computer using the included USB cable. Your connected device appears as an icon in the upper-left corner of the iTunes window. Learn what to do if you don’t see the icon.
  3. Click on the device icon . Look under Settings on the left side of the iTunes window for a list of the content types that you can sync from your iTunes library to your device.
  4. Click the content type that you want to sync.
  5. In the main iTunes window, click the box next to Sync to turn on syncing for that content type. If there’s a check in the box, syncing for that content type is already on.
  6. After you turn on syncing for a content type, you’ll see additional options to customize your sync settings. Use these options to make sure that you’re syncing the content that you want synced.
  7. Click the Apply button in the lower-right corner of the screen to save your sync settings. If syncing doesn’t start automatically, click the Sync button.
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The definition of property varies depending on the legislation you are referring to. This brings up a very important learning issue. Connecting different topics through similarities and differences helps us to understand and remember more easily. Studying the definition of property in relation to criminal damage in one session and then a few weeks later studying the definition of property in relation to theft will be much less successful for you than comparing the two definitions at the same time.

It’s always important to create diagrams, images or a map of knowledge. It’s much easier to remember an image than it is text. So let’s use this to our advantage when learning about property.

The following image helps you understand two different definitions of property. It helps you tie both criminal damage and theft together, and displaying the information as an image, helps you remember it. This approach is much more effective than simply reading about both pieces of legislation in a text book.

This particular image also helps you pick out the exceptions to the rule which are very important whenever answering exam questions on the topic, as it is easy to be caught out.

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Smoke Free Vehicles Regulations

For a person of any age to smoke in a private vehicle (that is enclosed wholly or partly by a roof) that is carrying someone who is under 18


for a driver (including a provisional driver) not to stop someone smoking in these circumstances.

Applies to:

  • Any private vehicle that is enclosed wholly or partly by a roof.
  • A vehicle with a sunroof open.
  • Sitting in the open doorway of an enclosed vehicle.
  • Motorhomes, campervans and caravans when they are being used as a vehicle.

Does not apply to:

  • E-cigarettes.
  • Motorhomes, campervans and caravans when they are being used as living accommodation.
  • A convertible car, or coupe, with the roof completely down.
  • Somebody who is 17 and smoking alone in a private vehicle.
  • Boats, ships and aircraft (covered by other legislation).
  • Work vehicles and public transport (covered by other legislation).

Further reading:

The Smoke-free (Private Vehicles) Regulations 2015

The Smoke-free (Exemptions and Vehicles) Regulations 2007

The Smoke-free (Vehicle Operators and Penalty Notices) (Amendment) Regulations 2015

The Smoke-free (Exemptions, Vehicles, Penalties and Discounted Amounts) (Amendment) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2008

The Smoke-free (Vehicle Operators and Penalty Notices) Regulations 2007

The Smoke-free (Exemptions, Vehicles, Penalties and Discounted Amounts) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2007

The Smoke-free (Premises, Vehicle Operators and Penalty Notices) Regulations (Northern Ireland) 2007

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Flash cards

Flash cards are a brilliant way to improve your learning and retention. They take a while to create, but don’t forget, you’re learning whilst you make them too.

You’re going to need pictures! These will dramatically increase how much you remember. But not just any pictures. There are a few features of images that can give you a big advantage:

  • Unusual – unusual images stick in your mind more easily
  • Personal/emotional – if something about the picture is personal and/or emotional it is easier to memorise
  • Contextual – abstract information is far easier to remember when it’s in an example

Take for example, the zulu word for dog – “inja”. To remember this I’m going to imagine an injured dog as the word injured and inja are so close. But this isn’t any dog, it needs to be personal, so I’m going to imagine my favourite breed of dog. It needs to be unusual, so I’m going to image it has green fur, and the fact that it’s injured (I’m imagining a bandaged broken leg), makes it emotional. So if I’m using a flash card, it now looks like this:


Suddenly it’s very easy to remember the Zulu word for dog is “inja”.

How about the example of “Duress”? Duress may be a defence where a person is threatened with death or serious physical injury unless they carry out a criminal act. Duress is not a defence to murder or attempted murder. Here’s an example of an image for a flash card that can put it in context. On one side is the word to test you, when you turn it over you can check to see if you were correct. If you were incorrect, you can use the image to help you remember.


Create flash cards for any concepts you are having difficulty remembering. It doesn’t matter if you can’t draw, so long as you can tell what the picture is! You can download images from the internet as well which can speed the process up. Once you have all the flash cards you need (they are cheap and easy to get hold of here on Amazon). The coloured ones are helpful if you want to categorise different areas of study.).

Use the method of “spaced repetition” to learn your flash cards effectively.

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Spaced Repetition – Exam Cramming Skills

Multiple studies have shown that “spaced repetition”, where you retest your knowledge at increasing intervals, is a more effective way to study than cramming, where you attempt to learn a large amount of information in one sitting. This applies to many study methods but lends itself well to learning with flash cards.

Flash cards usually consist of small index cards with the target question or information on one side and the answer written on the reverse. They are commonly used for learning the vocabulary for a new language with the target word on the front, and the translation on the back.

Using language as an example, you would take a small number of cards (perhaps 10 – most people can’t remember more than 4 or 5 at a time) and test yourself. You would read the word on the front and translate it, turning the card over to see if you were correct. If you were correct, the card would be placed in a second pile for revision later (perhaps the following day), if you were wrong the card is placed at the back of the pile to be reviewed sooner, perhaps in an hour. The following day, when reviewing the day old cards, if correct, they are placed in another pile for 3 days time, if incorrect they stay in the same pile for the following day.

Research shows that it’s easier to remember the first and last things you study in any given session (serial position effect). By studying with spaced repetition, you increase the number of first and last things you learn which gives you a good advantage over sitting and learning for several hours straight.

There is no research to suggest the best intervals for review. Though one study showed that the longer you want to remember something, the bigger the intervals should be. This is an example schedule:

1 hour, 3 hours, 1 day, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, 1 month, 2 months, 3 months, 6 months.

Any cards you can’t remember go back in the same pile, cards you remember move up to the next pile. They can all be kept in an index card box with dividers to remind you when to revisit a pile.

There are several software options if you don’t want boxes of cards everywhere, or you like to have your revision on you where ever you go. Try something like “Anki” which lets you design flash cards that can use on your smartphone, tablet or computer.

You can use flash cards to learn anything. Check out this post to see how to design the most effective ones…

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Brain food

Below you will see a recipe for a meal that is designed to feed your brain with the nutrients it needs to function at it’s best.

Egg yolks contain choline. Your body uses it to make acetylcholine, a vital neurotransmitter that passes messages in the brain. It’s needed for learning and memory, in particular, turning short term memories into long term ones.

Oily fish such as sardines, are high in Omega 3 fatty acids which protect the brain and play an important part in learning and memory. They make it easier for signals to cross the gap between brain cells.

Curcumin, found in turmeric, has been strongly associated with higher cognitive function, better mood, and protective effects against various brain diseases. It also promotes the growth of new brain cells. It is best absorbed in the presence of black pepper.

Dark chocolate, berries and kale all contain flavonoids. Flavonoids are part of the polyphenol group responsible for protecting the brain against toxins. They help promote the growth of new brain cells and protect the brain from chronic inflammation.

Coconut and avocado contain a large number of medium chain triglycerides which can be broken down into ketones to feed the brain directly. They have also been shown to improve memory.

Vinegar can reduce the time it takes for your stomach to empty and this results in a slower rise in blood sugar.

Olive oil contains vitamins E and K which help with memory.

Seaweed contains Inositol which helps the communication between between cells.



  • 2 eggs
  • 1 teaspoon turmeric
  • 1/2 teaspoon of ground black pepper
  • 1 small handful of kale


  • Salad leaves
  • Olive oil
  • apple cider vinegar
  • Avocado
  • Wild caught sardines


  • 200ml coconut cream
  • small handful of mixed berries
  • chocolate chips
  1. Omelette – Heat 2 tablespoons of grass fed ghee in a frying pan. Beat the eggs, add a teaspoon of turmeric, half a teaspoon of ground black pepper, a small handful of finely chopped kale and stir. Pour the egg mixture into the pan and cook until firm.
  2. Salad – Mix salad leaves and seaweed with sardines and avocado. Dress with olive oil and apple cider vinegar.
  3. Dessert – blend 200ml coconut cream with a small handful of mixed berries. Poor into a bowl and top with dark chocolate chips. Chill to set.

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Sleeping is essential to all human life. It happens at night when the light dims and the air temperature drops. We become naturally drowsy and drift into a sleep that lasts between 7.5 and 9 hours, waking as the light increases and air temperature starts to warm back up.

Sleep is essential to every process in the human body in some way and is incredibly restorative. One study in mice has shown that during sleep the space between the their brain cells increased by 60% flushing cerebrospinal fluid in and washing toxins out to the liver for detoxification. This process has since been labelled the glymphatic process.

The two hormones melatonin and cortisol stay in balance to help you sleep at night and wake naturally in the morning. Melatonin is the hormone that helps us fall asleep. It’s usually first produced between 9 and 10pm under dim light conditions resulting in an energy drop until 6am when your circadian rhythm is reset by light which sends signals to your brain to stop it producing melatonin, and instead produce a spike of cortisol during the morning to wake you up. Your cortisol level slowly drops during the day until melatonin is once again produced in the evening to leave you feeling sleepy again. This 24 hour cycle is your circadian rhythm.

Your body clock is most responsive to light between 6am and 8.30am. Because light can reset your circadian rhythm, artificial exposure to light such as a laptop or tablet for just 1 hour at night can reduce your melatonin to daytime levels. And only 2 hours of iPad use at maximum brightness can suppresses your normal nighttime melatonin release and disrupt your sleep pattern. Blue light is particularly effective at keeping you awake. Beware of your smart devices as most screens emit blue light. To stimulate your bodies natural melatonin production at night, avoid electronic screens in the two hours before bed, use dim lights in the house and, if you sleep in a room near outside lights, invest in some quality black out blinds to keep out the light whilst you sleep.

Your body also takes the cue to become drowsy from your body temperature which, in the absence of modern heating, would drop as the sun went down. Late night exercise can increase your core body temperature so it can take longer to get to sleep. Try either a cold shower before bed or a hot shower immediately followed by a period of rapid cooling to help precipitate sleep.

Circadian Rhythm –

If waking in the morning leaves you feeling drowsy for an hour or so there are a couple of great ways to get round it. A single sleep cycle (from light, through deep and back to light sleep) takes 90 minutes. You can use this to plan what time you need to go to sleep. Waking up at the end of a sleep cycle when you are in light sleep minimises that drowsy feeling. If you need to get up at 7am plan to be asleep by either 10 pm or 11:30 pm resulting in either 5 or 6 full sleep cycles, this way you will be in light sleep at the end of the cycle when your alarm goes off.

An increase in light is the natural way to wake and if you don’t have the luxury of naturally waking up to the rising sun you can create an artificial dawn which can reduce the feeling of drowsiness you experience. Using an alarm clock such as the Philips Wake Up Alarm Clock results in a slowly intensifying light until the clocks alarm sounds. The reduction in drowsiness can be explained by rising skin temperature and the amount of wakefulness during the 30 minutes prior to your alarm going off.

So these are great ways to get to sleep and wake up but how long should you actually spend asleep? Most people require between 5 and 6 sleep cycles – 7.5 or 9 hours sleep. But be aware that the most beneficial hormone secretions and recovery occur when sleeping between 10pm and 2am. So it’s at your advantage to go to sleep early and wake up early, rather than stay up late, even if you can still fit 5 sleep cycles in before waking.

Melatonin –

So, apart from sending us to sleep every night, why is melatonin so important? Melatonin improves immune system function, decreases the risk of osteoporosis and plaques in the brain (associated with Alzheimer’s), alleviates migraines and other pain, improves thyroid function, insulin sensitivity and helps with weight reduction. It also decreases blood pressure and the risk of a heart attack and stroke.

Melatonin also decreases the proliferation of cancer cells and tumour growth and enhances DNA protection from free radicals. Scarily, shift workers who naturally suffer from sleep deprivation on a regular basis HOW MUCH?? have a 60% increase in breast cancer and 35% increase in colorectal cancer. And it’s not just shift workers that suffer, office workers with no access to windows got 173% less exposure to light, and on average, sleep 45 minutes less per night.

You might think that losing 45 minutes of sleep a night is no big deal but sleep deprivation decreases melatonin levels and even a small reduction can have dramatic effects. There is a 5% increase in heart attack rates for three weeks after the clocks go forward and we experience the loss of only one hours sleep (an effect not seen when the clocks go back). So you can see just how important exposure to light during the day and avoidance of light at night, coupled with 7.5 to 9 hours sleep really is.

Shift work –

So if you need to do shift work, how can you reduce it’s harmful effects?

  • Night shifts should be as short as possible.
  • The number of consecutive night shifts should be minimised.
  • Rotating shifts should be in a delay direction – morning to evening to night.
  • As much time off as possible should be given after nights.

Eating –

Sleep is an important part of controlling your appetite, the way you eat and how many calories you store. Your brain is a very hungry organ. Although it only accounts for 2% of your body weight, it consumes 20% of your energy. But after 24 hours of sleep deprivation there is a 6% decrease in glucose reaching the brain. When it’s sleep deprived your body cannot extract the glucose from the bloodstream as effectively as it does normally. The parietal and frontal lobes of your brain loose 12-14% of their glucose supply. These are the lobes that are associated with self control. Less glucose to these areas results in a loss of self control and leaves you tending to eat more. Sleep deprivation also increases activity in the amygdala – an area associated with the motivation to eat.

Losing sleep also affects the hormones which control your appetite. A study at the University of Chicago showed that getting 4 hours of sleep for 2 nights resulted in a 28% increase in grehlin (the hormone that makes you hungry) and 18% decrease in leptin (the hormone that leaves you feeling full). Even a 2 hour reduction of sleep / night for one week is associated with increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and low grade inflammation, a condition known to predispose to insulin resistance and diabetes.

And if you are up late at night, eating when your body expects you to be asleep has a completely different affect on your body than eating during the day. Eating a meal at 1.30am will result in higher blood glucose levels, insulin and fats compared to the same meal eaten at 1.30pm therefore resulting in an increased risk of diabetes and heart disease in shift workers. Plasma glucose responses to exogenous glucose are markedly higher in the evening than in the morning and glucose tolerance is at it’s minimum during the night.

Caffeine –

During a normal day, receptors in your brain fill with a chemical called adenosine that tells your body to go into rest mode. Caffeine is structurally similar to adenosine and fits into those same receptors. Your body becomes tired but you cannot feel it so you feel more alert for longer. Caffeine does a great job of keeping you awake and alert but your body continues to produce more adenosine which doesn’t get broken down by your body and can increase your stress hormones increase leading you to overwork as there are no cues to rest.

Caffeine starts to work in 25 minutes and has a half life of 5 to 8 hours depending on your physiology. This long half life means that consuming caffeine 6 hours before bed shows a measurable disruption to sleep. Drinking caffeine during the day will also disrupt any recovery naps that you take.

0.3mg of caffeine per kg of your body weight is enough to improve your performance and level of alertness – the equivalent of 1 cup of tea every 2 hours. But bear in mind that caffeine also decreases your sleep duration and causes suppresses slow wave sleep

Performance –

Even changing your sleep duration by an hour or two can have a significant impact on your performance. Dropping from 9-7 hours sleep per night resulted in a loss of vigilance and lead to sluggishness in one study. Another showed that high level athletes sleeping for 10 hours a night improved their personal bests.

When learning a new skill it is best to practice it in s sessions 4 hours apart, sticking to the same skill each time and sleep 5 hours after practicing, and don’t  get up to early either – performance increases when you experience more light sleep in the morning (6-8am). When asked to remember a list of words over a set time period, those that slept between learning and being tested remembered more than those who learnt and were tested later the same day even though both groups had the same time between learning and the test. And smelling something whilst learning and again whilst sleeping improves retention.

Naps can improve your performance in many ways:

  • 5 min naps have no effect.
  • 10 min naps had the most benefit in testing and showed immediate benefit after waking.
  • 20 minute naps improve memory, alertness and reaction time and mood.
  • 90 minute naps enhance creative thinking and your ability to grasp abstract concepts, they improve alertness and focus, improve muscle memory for new skills and abilities and promote the ability to learn facts and figures.

But be careful as longer naps can leave you feeling drowsy upon waking and may not show their benefits straight away. Naps show a greater benefit in performance than consuming caffeine and give less variable results, but a combined nap and caffeine were superior than either alone.

Meditation –

Mediation is an effective treatment for insomnia. In particular, morning mediation can help improve sleep at night. Not only that, meditation improves control of alpha rhythms which are thought to minimise distractions and therefore make you better at focussing and regulating how things that arise will impact you. Long term, it will even alter the physical structure of your brain, thickening regions associated with attention and sensory processing.

Solutions for better sleep health –

  • Take part in at least 2.5 hours of moderate exercise a week.
  • Lifting heavy weights builds muscles and aids sleep.
  • Morning exercises results in you spending more time in reparative sleep.
  • Turn screens down to minimum brightness and use an app such as Flux in the evenings. Hold the screen at least 12 inches from your face and wear orange tinted glasses to block the blue light.
  • Sleep in a room with blackout blinds to reduce night time exposure to sleep disrupting light.
  • Use red night lights.
  • Your bedroom temp should be 18 degrees (65F) and 65% humidity.
  • Baths decrease your body temperature when you get out and aid sleep. Cold extremities can help cause sleepiness.
  • To avoid sleep inertia, keep naps to 25 mins or a full sleep cycle of 90 minutes. And plan time night time sleeping in terms of 90 minute sleep cycles.
  • If you have problems getting to sleep:
  • Apply a magnesium supplement to your skin or eat foods high in magnesium and aluminium – green leafy vegetables, pumpkin and sesame  seeds, spirulina and Brazil nuts.
  • Think pleasant thoughts.
  • Create a sleep routine.
  • Behave as if you are sleepy.
  • Associate a piece of music with sleep.
  • Use an essential oil such as lavender.
  • If you have difficulty staying asleep:
  • Play white noise to decrease noise disturbances that might wake you.
  • Avoid alcohol.
  • If you wake worrying about things, keep a notepad handy and write down the first steps to solving the problem so you don’t think about them as you try to sleep.
  • If you wake hungry, make sure you consume 200 calories of carbohydrates before bed.